It has now been established that human activities are the root cause of increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Man-made GHG have been the most significant driver of observed climate change since the mid-20th century due to their impact on the amplified natural greenhouse effect. Therefore, establishing a GHG inventory is an important part of a CAP development, as it sets a baseline against which future emissions levels and future reduction targets can be measured.
In relation to this, on 22 October 2020 the city council of Denpasar held a virtual meeting to review its GHG inventory from the year 2017 to 2018. Approximately 13 city officials were present, representing various agencies comprised of Planning Development, Environment, Public Work, Transportation, Health, Tourism, and others. The meeting aimed to share the result of the GHG emission profile, as well as discuss the mitigation strategies and priorities.
Supported by CCROM and a local university, Denpasar has nearly completed its 2018 GHG inventory report, which represents the emission level of Denpasar in 2017 and 2018. Sectors, sources, and activities responsible for GHG emissions are being identified in the report. In 2018, the CO2 level reached 3.1 million tons, including indirect emission. The energy sector contributed about 96% of the total GHG emissions, and the waste sector was the second-largest contributor (3%). CO2 emissions from the residential sector accounted for 47% of total emission, mostly attributed to grid electricity consumption. Transportation took second place, accounting for 23% of total emission, followed by the commercial sector for 14%. Fossil fuel consumption in the power plant generated 10% of the total emission, significantly increased compared to 2017 (less than 1%). CCROM observed that the increase resulted from a larger portion of diesel consumption in the diesel and gas-powered plant.
Furthermore, CCROM has developed 2030 business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, which aims to characterize emission levels in 2030 on the assumption that no new mitigation efforts and policies will be adopted. With the energy sector projected to continuously dominate Denpasar GHG emissions, CCROM suggested focusing mitigation efforts on the energy efficiency of both residential and commercial sectors. In this regard, several ongoing initiatives were advised to be developed further to drive wider impact, such as the Green Hotel program that has so far been held back because of the pandemic. The utilization of biodiesel fuel for public transportation was also encouraged.
The next session focused on the discussion of existing mitigation strategies from various city agencies. The head of Environmental Agency shared multiple efforts to reach sustainability within the city, including a 30% reduction of waste at the source as well as implementing waste sorting, and equipping the Environmental Agency office with composting bins to support workplace composting. To improve visual and air quality of the city, around 3000 trees are expected to be planted by communities. Bicycle lanes are also going to be provided by the agency’s cooperation with the Transportation Agency. At the end of the discussion, the Head of Environmental Agency suggested giving priority to the activities that are already in-line with the existing city policies. The result of the discussion would be processed as an input to assess the emission reduction target, which the meeting would be scheduled in the first week of November.